Ryegrass, (genus Lolium), genus of about 10 species of grass in the family Poaceae. Scientific Name and Common Name; Kingdom: Plantae – Plants Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants Class Italicum . Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Preferred Scientific Name. Grasses: Hybrid ryegrass. Lolium multiflorum Lam. Diploid ryegrass has a relatively small seed compared to tetraploid ryegrass and may be sown at a lighter rate. Species Plantarum 1: 83, https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/resources/iwmhub/common-weeds-of-cropping/annual-ryegrass, "Nandula VK, Poston DH, Eubank TW, Koger CH and Reddy KN, Differential response to glyphosate in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) populations from Mississippi. Lolium multiflorum is the scientific name for annual ryegrass while Lolium perenne is the scientific name for the perennial ryegrass. Italian ryegrass. Lolium perenne (Table 1) Lolium x boucheanumKunth (Table 2) - Refer Hybrid ryegrass fact sheet for details re description etc. Very strong cool season growth and nutritive value Hybrid ryegrass (short-lived type) 1. Annual ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. Preferred Scientific Name. 1753. Lolium perenne, common name perennial ryegrass, English ryegrass, winter ryegrass, or ray grass, is a grass from the family Poaceae. [3][4] It is often called ryegrass, but this term is sometimes used to refer to grasses in other genera. Lolium italicum A. Braun; International Common Names. English: English ryegrass; Italian ryegrass; perennial rye grass; Spanish: ballico perenne; raigras ingles; vallico; French: ivraie vivace; ray-grass anglais; Portuguese: azevem-vivaz; gazao It is found throughout California to about 3300 feet (1000 m), except in deserts and the Great Basin and inhabits agricultural land and other disturbed places. It's easy to be fooled, so let's distinguish between the three types. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The base (below ground) is often reddish purple in colour and seedlings exude a clear sap when crushed.Mature plants are erect and up to 900 millimetres (mm) in height. Naturalised in all Australian States. Annual - Less than one year Italian - 1-2 years Short rotation - 2-5 years Perennial- 5 years 1. aristatum . Subordinate Taxa. Leaves are long and narrow, without hairs, are ribbed on the upper surface and have a shiny lower surface. perennial ryegrass; International Common Names. Like many cool-season grasses of the Poaceae, it harbors a symbiotic fungal endophyte, either Epichloë or its close relative Neotyphodium, both of which are members of the fungal family Clavicipitaceae. Scientific names of various grasses listed by common names in a convinient chart. The common name of this plant in Spanish is Lolium perenne. Omissions? The plants have extensive root systems and are useful for erosion control. The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Lolium perenne . Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Ryegrass is ideally sown in late summer or spring. Annual ryegrass toxicity, ergot and herbicide resistance can be a problem with this species. The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. Ryegrasses are naturally diploid, with 2n=14, and are closely related to the fescues (Festuca).[5][6][7][8]. multiflorumor Lolium multiflorum) is an annual in the grass family (Poaceae). Scientific name — Secale Cereale, cereal ryegrass is noted for its late fall to early spring nutrient scavenging and grazing potential, and is taller and quicker-growing than wheat. Weed Tech 21: 477–482 (2006).doi 10.1614/WT-06-168.1", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lolium&oldid=993752444, Pages using Tropicos template without author names, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 08:26. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is regarded as a serious threat to one or more natural vegetation formations i… In the northern part of the state, productivity is seen from mid-February to May. Lolium perenne L. – perennial ryegrass. Cereal ryegrass germinates at temperatures as low as 34° F, is also drought-resistant, and flourishes in light soils, where most ryegrasses have problems growing. Annual ryegrass (L. rigidum) is one of the most serious and costly weeds of cropping systems in southern Australia, and herbicide resistance is a frequent problem. The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. The scientific name of Perennial ryegrass is Lolium Perenne, and the scientific name of annual ryegrass is Lolium Multiflorum. Lolium contains some species which are important grasses for lawns, and as pasture and for grazing and hay for livestock, being a highly nutritious stock feed. Italian ryegrass and a related species, perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne, are the two most common weedy ryegrasses in California. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. Sowing/planting rates as single species Pasture: 25-30 kg/ha (diploid cultivars); 20-40 (4n) Lawn: 1-2 kg/100 sqm Parks, rehabilitation or revegetation single species: 75 kg to 100 kg per hectare. [10][11], Some species, particularly L. temulentum, are weeds which can have a severe impact on the production of wheat and other crops. Sowing Rate: 25-30 kg/ha Blend Rate: 5-15 kg/ha. A number of species are grown as forage and lawn grasses in temperate Eurasia and Africa, and both perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum) are important constituents of pasture and lawn-seed mixtures used around the world. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Ryegrass varies from the most persistent (perennial ryegrass) to the least persistent (annual ryegrass) and can be broadly categorised by how long they live or persist. [12] Ryegrass pollen is also one of the major causes of hay fever. Common Name: Red Clover Scientific Name: Trifolium pratense Family: Fabaceae It consists of a flowering culm with alternate leaves about 1-3' tall. Legumes: White Clover, Red and Persian clovers. The scientific name of Italian Ryegrass is the botanical name or formal name. It grows vigorously in winter and early spring. Ryegrass should not be confused with rye, which is a grain crop. Like many cool-sea… Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). Sow at 20-25kg/ha alone or 5-15kg/ha as part of a mix. Note that this species can be a weed in winter crops. Italian ryegrass; Other Scientific Names. Developed to combine strengths of perennialand Italian ryegrasses, particularly increased cool season growth and increased nutritive value (eg water soluble carbohydrate). This clump forming grass spreads by seed and has a fibrous root system. Suited to drier margin of ryegrass zone. Lolium perenne ssp. Lolium is a genus of tufted grasses in the bluegrass subfamily of the grass family. [13][14] Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). Ryegrasses can be annuals or perennials. Typical yields of annual ryegrass are 2 to 6 tons/ac. Key Features. The ergot of ryegrass (Lolium spp.) It often becomes naturalised in agricultural areas, along roadsides and near habitation, but also invades a wide variety of natural habitats. Italian Rye Grass Lolium multiflorum Grass family (Poaceae) Description: This grass is usually an annual, although sometimes it is a biennial or short-lived perennial. Ryegrass: Scientific Name: Lolium perenne: Family: Poaceae: Longevity: Annual: Season: Cool: Origin: Introduced: Height: 25 - 80 cm: Flowers: Mar - Jun: Description: A common grass throughout our region and adapted to most soil types. Common Name: Crimson Clover Scientific Name: Trifolium incarnatum Family: Fabaceae Cool-Season Legumes. Sowing/planting rates in mixtures 15-25 kg/ha (diploid cultivars); 20-40 (4n). The common name of this plant in Spanish is raigrás italiano. Darnel (L. temulentum), also known as poison ryegrass or tare, is considered a noxious weed in many areas. Both names essentially mean the same thing, and there really isn’t that much more to say about the name. The scientific name for annual or Italian ryegrass is Lolium multiflorum Lamarck (Munz, 1973). Perennial ryegrass is related to the turf grass known as annual ryegrass, but these two plants differ, too. Several former Lolium species now regarded as part of other genera: Castellia, Enteropogon, × Festulolium, Hainardia, Lepturus, Melica, and Vulpia. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is regarded as an environmental weed in New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia. The scientific name of Perennial Ryegrass is the botanical name or formal name. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/plant/ryegrass, The Spruce - Annual Ryegrass Plant Information, United States Department of Agriculture - Ryegrass, rye grass - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The plants are unrelated to cereal rye (Secale cereale). Lolium perenne L. Preferred Common Name. Annual ryegrass is used mainly for pastures. The primary species found worldwide and used for both lawns and as a forage crop is perennial ryegrass(Lolium perenne). Ryegrasses are also used in soil erosion control programs. The culm is pale green, terete, glabrous, and unbranched. There's more than one kind of ryegrass; in fact, three different types of grasses contain \"rye\" in their names. Glyphosate-resistant Lolium has been reported from Mississippi in 2006. Annual ryegrass is also called Italian ryegrass and is closely related to perennial ryegrasses. Plant Characteristics. (1779) Preferred Common Name. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Corrections? Name: Ryegrass - Annual (Lolium rigidum) Description: Annual self-regenerating aggressive winter-spring growing ryegrass. in Colombia or Kenya, ryegrass is grown above 2400-2500 m alt. Often sown in mixtures with white clover. NOTE: Italian ryegrass (annual type) Cultivars of annual type Italian ryegrass are listed separately in the annualryegrass fact sheet NOTE: Hybrid ryegrass (long-lived type) Classed technically as hybrid ryegras… It is the principal grazing grass in New Zealand where some 10 million kilograms of certified seed are produced every year. Lolium is native to Europe, Asia and northern Africa, as well as being cultivated and naturalized in Australia, the Americas, and various oceanic islands. The different kinds have different uses. Italian ryegrass and perennial ryegrass can hybridize, result… Native to Annual ryegrass is native to Southern Europe while perennial ryegrass is native to Europe, Asia, and northern Africa. It is the principal grazing grass in New Zealand where some 10 million kilograms of certified seed are produced every year. Ryegrass, (genus Lolium), genus of about 10 species of grass in the family Poaceae. English: annual ryegrass; westerwold ryegrass; Spanish: ballico de Italia; … The plant is often infected with a poisonous fungus (Neotyphodium species) that can be dangerous to grazing animals. Lolium perenne var. Duration: Annual Stem Texture: Hairless/Smooth Growth Habit: Bunch grass, Grasses Season: Cool Distribution: 01 - Pineywoods, 02 - Gulf Prairies and Marshes, 03 - Post Oak Savannah, 04 - Blackland Prairies, 05 - Cross Timbers and Prairies, 07 - Edwards Plateau, 08 - Rolling Plains, 09 - High Plains, 10 - Trans-Pecos Now, with that being said, annual ryegrass actually used to go by the name of Lolium multiflorum. Common Name: Annual Ryegrass Scientific Name: Lolium multiflorum Family: Poaceae Cool-Season Grass. A number of species are grown as forage and lawn grasses in temperate Eurasia and Africa, and both perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum) are important constituents of … The ergot body drops to the ground with the seed, lies dormant through the winter and produces millions of spores in the spring. The leaves are shiny, especially on the back of the blade. multiflorum . As the name suggests, annual ryegrass is a short-lived grass used to provide quick color, short-term erosion control or temporary stability for a single season. Tetraploid annual type; Italian ryegrass, also called annual ryegrass, is an upright annual grass that behaves like a biennial or short-lived perennial. multiflorum. Plant Description: Annual grass, up to 90 cm tall and forming tussocky clumps. For Wimmera ryegrass, the scientific name is Lolium rigidum … It has a wide ligule, long auricles and the emerging leaf is folded. Ryegrasses are also used in soil erosion control programs. It is a purplish black, banana-shaped, 0.25- to 0.75-inchlong body replacing a grain in the seed head. multiflorum ← → Other Common Names: annual ryegrass. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. It is native to Europe, Asia and northern Africa, but is widely cultivated and naturalised around the world. Synonyms (former Scientific Names): Lolium perenne ssp. Suitable for oversowing into an established stand. Ryegrass Scientific Name. Scientific Name Lolium perenne ssp. Annual ryegrass is hairless and has bright green, narrow leaves. The inflorescence (flowering stems) are flat and up to 300mm in length. The flower spikelets grow in the angles of a zigzag rachis (flower stem). Lolium multiflorum . Phantom is an annual tetraploid ryegrass selected for maximum dry matter production during winter and spring. Tennis courts, including those at the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club, the venue for Wimbledon, are planted with ryegrass. In the Gulf Coast regions, reason productivity can be expected from November to May. Annual and Italian ryegrass These two ryegrass species are described together because they are used in similar situations, for their fast establishment and high winter - early spr… This species is grown as a pasture grass and is also deliberately planted in recreation areas in the temperate regions of Australia. Other Common Name: Annual Rye-grass: Status: Native to the Mediterranean. Updates? Italian ryegrass (biennial type) 1. Stems are 12 to 40 inches tall and pale green to yellowish. [15], World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, "Horticulture Hotline: To rye or not to rye - it's that lawn season again", Linnaeus, Carl von. Habit. Also grown in subtropical areas of Australia, S America and S Africa; in the tropics, ryegrass is grown to a limited extent at high altitudes, e.g. The tufted plants reach about 0.3 to 1 metre (1 to 3.3 feet) tall and have tough dark green leaves. Lightly harrow and roll to improve germination. They are characterized by bunch-like growth habits. Annual Ryegrass and Perennial ryegrass are very important for forage production or livestock production. [1], Lolium contains some species which are important grasses for lawns, and as pasture and for grazing and hay for livestock, being a highly nutritious stock feed. Annual ryegrass can be grazed when plants reach an approximate height of 6-8 inches. The primary species found worldwide and used both for lawns and as a forage crop is perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Festuca perennis is the legitimate scientific name for annual ryegrass. There is a large range of cultivars. Lower stems and nodes are often purplish or reddish. Plant Characteristics. Spikel… Scientific Name: Perennial Lolium Domain: Eukaryota Kingdom: Plantae; Phylum: Spermatophyta Subphylum: Angiosperms Class: Monocotyledonae How to Plant Ryegrass. It is often used as a forage grass in winter pasture plantings and seeded in Bermudagrass pastures. Modern winnowing techniques now separate the seed from rye seed, but in earlier times contaminated rye flour was a health hazard. The most important cultivated temperate grasses. Lolium perenne var. is a fungal body or sclerotium often found in many cereal grasses. There is a large range of cultivars. 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