Nguyen Bat was not a communist at the time of the massacre, but the incident changed his mind. I refused to make such a statement and so they stuck needles under the tips of my ten fingers saying that if I did not write down what they wanted and admit to being a member of the Vietcong, they would continue to torture me. [83] North and South were merged as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in July 1976 and the PRG was dissolved. A man with a gun can do anything. [8] American soldiers referred to the Viet Cong as Victor Charlie or V-C. "Victor" and "Charlie" are both letters in the NATO phonetic alphabet. Biological Warfare. The initial objective of the NLF was to gain the support of the peasants living in the rural areas. The two arms were close together which pulled my shoulders out of joint. During the Indochina War the Vietminh had taken the land from the large landowners in the territory they controlled and given it to the peasants. [72] The group's manifesto called for an independent, non-aligned South Vietnam and stated that "national reunification cannot be achieved overnight. The earliest citation for "Vietcong" in English is from 1957. They all dressed alike." Original archival material from libraries, including manuscripts, typescripts, and ephemera, as well as video clips, are included. [25] The first arms delivery via the trail, a few dozen rifles, was completed in August 1959. There were three phases of fighting during the offensive: [61] A photo by Eddie Adams showing the summary execution of a Viet Cong in Saigon on February 1 became a symbol of the brutality of the war. For sometime the governments of South Vietnam and the United States had been concerned about the influence of the NLF on the peasants. Approved For Release 2006/05/24: CIA-RDP78T02095R000800070039-3 Approved For Release 2006/05/24: CIA … The aim is to wear down gradually the much larger and stronger enemy. -sources . (7) Whenever possible to buy commodities for those who live far from the market. I pitied them, knowing that out of every ten, one would die, two would be maimed for life, another two would be less seriously wounded and sent out to fight again, and all the rest would be wounded in other, more hidden ways. Vietnam War theatre A map of North and South Vietnam during the Vietnam War showing major air bases and the communists' supply routes, including the … Subject Headings - Guerrillas--Vietnamese--Vietnam (Republic)--1960-1970 - Vietnam War, 1961-1975 Headings Photographic prints--1960-1970. Two Viet Cong prisoners were interrogated on an airplane flying toward Saigon. [9][nb 1] Many writers shorten this to National Liberation Front (NLF). He had not even noticed how much he was bleeding or the pieces of bone that had been pushed through his skin and were sticking out of his leg like huge toothpicks... North Vietnamese officers interrogated him. (4) Not to do or speak what is likely to make people believe that we hold them in contempt. [6] This was considered the beginning of the "armed struggle" in communist accounts. [82], Activists opposing American involvement in Vietnam said that the Viet Cong was a nationalist insurgency indigenous to the South. This powerful platform greatly enhances the research experience for students and researchers by broadening their discovery of primary source documents through the use of multiple search options and research tools. Under the terms of the Accords, military personnel were order… Viet Cong guerrillas in small boats patrol the Saigon River in South Vietnam Created / Published 1966. The NLF also employed booby traps against US and South Vietnamese troops. CIA. French Colonialism & Vietnam's Desire for Independence. They pointed out that fifty per cent of the agricultural land in South Vietnam was owned by only two and a half per cent of the population. JUSPAO was also responsible for providing overall policy guidance to and co-ordination of US psychological operational efforts through analyses of captured Viet Cong and North Vietnamese papers. At first they were not in a position to take on the South Vietnamese Army and instead concentrated on what became known as 'soft targets'. [68], Aside from some districts in the Mekong Delta, the Viet Cong failed to create a governing apparatus in South Vietnam following Tet, according to an assessment of captured documents by the U.S. President Eisenhower's Promise. In economic terms, the bombing hurt the economy of the United States more than North Vietnam. The North Vietnamese leadership approved tentative measures to revive the southern insurgency in December 1956. [12] The success of this campaign inspired U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower to dub Diệm the "miracle man" when he visited the U.S. in May 1957. It was like a stew, full of meat and flesh and red tissue and white bone. [86] The official Vietnamese history of the war states that "The Liberation Army of South Vietnam [Viet Cong] is a part of the People's Army of Vietnam". [56] After Thanh's death in July, Giáp was assigned to implement this plan, now known as the Tet Offensive. The NLF called for southern Vietnamese to "overthrow the camouflaged colonial regime of the American imperialists" and to make "efforts toward the peaceful unification". Carter recalled that some GIs were shouting and yelling during the massacre: "The boys enjoyed it. For the communist independence movement before the Geneva Accords, see, "Vietcong" redirects here. At the end of the day, the villagers would be turned loose. In Vietnam a Communist government has set out deliberately to conquer a sovereign people in a neighbouring state. This was a secondary source but I cited it as a primary source because the only thing I used from the website was the primary source picture. In an attempt to prevent this they moved the peasants into new villages in areas under the control of the South Vietnamese army. The killings began without warning... Stanley saw "some old women and some little children - fifteen or twenty of them - in a group around a temple where some incense was burning. [43] Hanoi was soon receiving up-to-date surface-to-air missiles. [30] Violence between the Viet Cong and government forces soon increased drastically from 180 clashes in January 1960 to 545 clashes in September. Therefore, when a guerrilla was captured and tortured, his confessions did not do too much damage to the NLF. The Domino Theory. I was very impressed, not only by their tactics but by their performance. Charlie Company had suffered 28 casualties, including five dead. The NLF was told not to go into combat unless it outnumbered the enemy and was certain of winning. [15], An assassination campaign, referred to as "extermination of traitors" [21] or "armed propaganda" in communist literature, began in April 1957. Virtual Vietnam Archive. [43] The U.S. would have 200,000 soldiers in South Vietnam by the end of the year.[44]. Several months ago in Detroit we had an investigation at which over 150 honorably discharged, and many very highly decorated, veterans testified to war crimes committed in South-East Asia. ", The war was mostly a matter of enduring weeks of expectant waiting and, at random intervals, of conducting vicious manhunts through jungles and swamps where snipers harassed us constantly and booby traps cut us down one by one... At times, the comradeship that was the war's only redeeeming quality caused some of the worst crimes - acts of retribution for friends who had been killed. [70], The success of the 1973–74 dry season offensive convinced Hanoi to accelerate its timetable. But he, too, was thrown out. When it became clear that President Ngo Dinh Diem had no intention of holding elections for a united Vietnam, his political opponents began to consider alternative ways of obtaining their objectives. [23] In early 1958, Lê Duẩn met with the leaders of "Inter-zone V" (northern South Vietnam) and ordered the establishment of patrols and safe areas to provide logistical support for activity in the Mekong Delta and in urban areas. In January 1966, Australian troops uncovered a tunnel complex which had been used by COSVN. The peasants were motivated by fear as well as a sense of gratitude. I lived in abject misery for the rest of the time I was a prisoner in Vietnam. One of the major problems of the US forces was the detection of the NLF hiding in the forests of Vietnam. However, over a period of time, it built up a large supply of captured weapons. beating. (1) Not to do what is likely to damage the land and crops or spoil the houses and belongings of the people. Primary Source: Statement by John Kerry of Vietnam Veterans Against the War (1971) ... We saw Vietnam ravaged equally by American bombs and search and destroy missions, as well as by Viet Cong terrorism – and yet we listened while this country tried to blame all of the havoc on the Viet Cong. Type in your name to start the game. Primary Source Personal Experience Sources United States Troops Briefing Video. Subscribe to our Spartacus Newsletter and keep up to date with the latest articles. The gun played a real big part in that. A newspaper written about Ho Chi Minh after the Vietnam war. It included the replacement of the Catholic dominated Ngo Dinh Diem administration with a government that: "represented all social classes and religions.". [84] They said some statements issued by communist leaders in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that southern communist forces were influenced by Hanoi. They thought they were shooting at trespassers, occupiers, that they had a right to be there and we didn't. It meant if I decided not to do my job anymore I would be sent to jail and court-martialed. Sources Agent Orange was a powerful herbicide used by U.S. military forces during the Vietnam War to eliminate forest cover and crops for North Vietnamese and Viet Cong troops. Tet was a great loss for the NLF forces. If he's unlucky, he will be turned into a blind, deaf, emasculated, legless shell.". They all died. The tactics they employed have been described by Robert Taber, who fought with the guerrillas in Cuba, as the war of the flea: "The flea bites, hops, and bites again, nimbly avoiding the foot that would crush him. 'Agent Orange', the chemical used in this defoliation programme not only destroyed trees but caused chromosomal damage in people. South Vietnam's Law 10/59, approved in May 1959, authorized the death penalty for crimes "against the security of the state" and featured prominently in Viet Cong propaganda. The first refused to answer questions and was thrown out of the airplane at 3,000 feet. [50] Notable Viet Cong atrocities include the massacre of over 3,000 unarmed civilians at Huế, 48 killed in the bombing of My Canh floating restaurant in Saigon in June 1965[51] and a massacre of 252 Montagnards in the village of Đắk Sơn in December 1967 using flamethrowers. Vietnam War theatre. In 1965, General William Westmoreland developed the aggressive strategy of 'search and destroy'. Our losses were so immense that we were unable to replace them with new recruits", said PRG Justice Minister Trương Như Tảng. There was also a U.S. presidential election in 1964. [6] Today's Vietnamese media most frequently refers to the group as the "Liberation Army of South Vietnam" (Quân Giải phóng Miền Nam Việt Nam) .[10]. In 111 BC, Vietnam became part of the Chinese Empire. When searching catalogs and databases for primary source materials, try using keywords and subject headings similar to the ones below, adding terms denoting primary sources. This powerful platform greatly enhances the research experience for students and researchers by broadening their discovery of primary source documents through the use of multiple search options and research tools. National Archives Identifier: 542328. But there were a wide variety of targets, including clinics and medical personnel. The NLF was merged with the Vietnamese Fatherland Front in February 1977. A. He does not think he screamed when the Vietnamese twisted and bent his shattered leg. [6] A series of uprisings beginning in the Mekong Delta province of Bến Tre in January 1960 created "liberated zones", models of Viet Cong-style government. This video was shown to all of the troops in America before heading out to war in Vietnam. Troops in the War. Primary source translations that are in the Tricollege libraries will often be listed in Tripod under subject terms using the word "sources" or "autobiograph*" or "personal narratives." [85], Anti-communists countered that the Viet Cong was merely a front for Hanoi. Some continued to chant, "No VC." It's a mine that goes after the lower torso: a terrible mine... On one occasion after my company had encamped and sent out patrols there was a large explosion only 200 yards away... We raced out there and only two men were living out of a patrol of eight or so. Viet Cong, the guerrilla force that, with the support of the North Vietnamese Army, fought against South Vietnam (late 1950s–1975) and the United States (early 1960s–1973). This strategy failed dismally and some observers claimed that it actually increased the number of peasants joining the NLF. After subduing the Bình Xuyên organized crime gang in the Battle for Saigon in 1955, and the Hòa Hảo and other militant religious sects in early 1956, Diệm turned his attention to the Viet Cong. COSVN retreated to Mimot in Cambodia. Dropping to the ground, I watched this kid firing away for 10 seconds, till he disappeared with his buddies into the rice. It was about nine o'clock in the morning. Berkeley Heights, NJ: MyReportLinks.com, 2006. [64] "We did not base ourselves on scientific calculation or a careful weighing of all factors, but...on an illusion based on our subjective desires", Trà concluded. Anything. A person is a vicious animal. [55] Convinced that 1968 could be the last chance for decisive victory, General Nguyễn Chí Thanh, suggested an all-out offensive against urban centers. Beginning in February 1970, Lê Duẩn's prominence in the official media increased, suggesting that he was again top leader and had regained the upper hand in his longstanding rivalry with Trường Chinh. [37] U.S. President John F. Kennedy decided in November 1961 to substantially increase American military aid to South Vietnam. During the war, communist insurgents and anti-war activists claimed that the Viet Cong was an insurgency indigenous to the South, while the U.S. and South Vietnamese governments portrayed the group as a tool of North Vietnam. Example: Prisoners of war- … When your foot hit the prong, a charge went off that shot the mine into the air, a yard high, showering shrapnel everywhere. It provides excellent information on the usage of children in propaganda, which was definitely not exceptions to this conflict. [9], Former revolutionary organization in South Vietnam and Cambodia, This article is about the communist political organisation in South Vietnam. I was extremely outraged and would never come out with any information. I thought they were torturing another prisoner. The Viet Minh had become the government of Democratic Republic of Vietnam since the Vietnamese 1946 general election, and military forces of the communists regrouped there. I found I could not be tortured to death. Names [edit | edit source]. To make their night attacks more effective, the Vietcong started to make booby … In 1964, however, American political and military authorities believed their overwhelming firepower would be more than enough to subdue the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese Army. Innocent civilians were often killed by mistake. The term Việt Cộng appeared in Saigon newspapers beginning in 1956. The term Việt cộng appeared in Saigon newspapers beginning in 1956. 10 Questions | By Dbspence | Last updated: Feb 22, ... 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