In the northern part of the state, productivity is seen from mid-February to May. Scientific Name: Perennial Lolium Domain: Eukaryota Kingdom: Plantae; Phylum: Spermatophyta Subphylum: Angiosperms Class: Monocotyledonae How to Plant Ryegrass. Subordinate Taxa. Ryegrass is ideally sown in late summer or spring. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. Like many cool-season grasses of the Poaceae, it harbors a symbiotic fungal endophyte, either Epichloë or its close relative Neotyphodium, both of which are members of the fungal family Clavicipitaceae. multiflorum ← → Other Common Names: annual ryegrass. The ergot of ryegrass (Lolium spp.) Omissions? Leaves are long and narrow, without hairs, are ribbed on the upper surface and have a shiny lower surface. It is native to Europe, Asia and northern Africa, but is widely cultivated and naturalised around the world. (1779) Preferred Common Name. Scientific Name and Common Name; Kingdom: Plantae – Plants Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants Class It consists of a flowering culm with alternate leaves about 1-3' tall. Annual ryegrass is used mainly for pastures. A number of species are grown as forage and lawn grasses in temperate Eurasia and Africa, and both perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum) are important constituents of pasture and lawn-seed mixtures used around the world. This clump forming grass spreads by seed and has a fibrous root system. Perennial ryegrass is related to the turf grass known as annual ryegrass, but these two plants differ, too. In the Gulf Coast regions, reason productivity can be expected from November to May. Tetraploid annual type; There's more than one kind of ryegrass; in fact, three different types of grasses contain \"rye\" in their names. Ryegrass, (genus Lolium), genus of about 10 species of grass in the family Poaceae. Lolium italicum A. Braun; International Common Names. Developed to combine strengths of perennialand Italian ryegrasses, particularly increased cool season growth and increased nutritive value (eg water soluble carbohydrate). [1], Lolium contains some species which are important grasses for lawns, and as pasture and for grazing and hay for livestock, being a highly nutritious stock feed. in Colombia or Kenya, ryegrass is grown above 2400-2500 m alt. is a fungal body or sclerotium often found in many cereal grasses. Legumes: White Clover, Red and Persian clovers. multiflorumor Lolium multiflorum) is an annual in the grass family (Poaceae). By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1753. The different kinds have different uses. The leaves are shiny, especially on the back of the blade. Italicum . ... Scientific Name Lolium multiflorum. It's easy to be fooled, so let's distinguish between the three types. Plant Characteristics. Darnel (L. temulentum), also known as poison ryegrass or tare, is considered a noxious weed in many areas. It often becomes naturalised in agricultural areas, along roadsides and near habitation, but also invades a wide variety of natural habitats. Grasses: Hybrid ryegrass. English: English ryegrass; Italian ryegrass; perennial rye grass; Spanish: ballico perenne; raigras ingles; vallico; French: ivraie vivace; ray-grass anglais; Portuguese: azevem-vivaz; gazao The primary species found worldwide and used both for lawns and as a forage crop is perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). perennial ryegrass; International Common Names. [12] Ryegrass pollen is also one of the major causes of hay fever. The scientific name of Perennial ryegrass is Lolium Perenne, and the scientific name of annual ryegrass is Lolium Multiflorum. Ryegrass should not be confused with rye, which is a grain crop. Common Name: Crimson Clover Scientific Name: Trifolium incarnatum Family: Fabaceae Cool-Season Legumes. Diploid ryegrass has a relatively small seed compared to tetraploid ryegrass and may be sown at a lighter rate. There is a large range of cultivars. It grows vigorously in winter and early spring. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is regarded as an environmental weed in New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia. [10][11], Some species, particularly L. temulentum, are weeds which can have a severe impact on the production of wheat and other crops. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Lolium perenne (Table 1) Lolium x boucheanumKunth (Table 2) - Refer Hybrid ryegrass fact sheet for details re description etc. Common Name: Annual Ryegrass Scientific Name: Lolium multiflorum Family: Poaceae Cool-Season Grass. The primary species found worldwide and used for both lawns and as a forage crop is perennial ryegrass(Lolium perenne). Annual ryegrass is hairless and has bright green, narrow leaves. Key Features. Italian ryegrass; Other Scientific Names. Sowing/planting rates as single species Pasture: 25-30 kg/ha (diploid cultivars); 20-40 (4n) Lawn: 1-2 kg/100 sqm Parks, rehabilitation or revegetation single species: 75 kg to 100 kg per hectare. Lolium multiflorum is the scientific name for annual ryegrass while Lolium perenne is the scientific name for the perennial ryegrass. It is the principal grazing grass in New Zealand where some 10 million kilograms of certified seed are produced every year. Stems are 12 to 40 inches tall and pale green to yellowish. The ergot body drops to the ground with the seed, lies dormant through the winter and produces millions of spores in the spring. Weed Tech 21: 477–482 (2006).doi 10.1614/WT-06-168.1", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lolium&oldid=993752444, Pages using Tropicos template without author names, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 08:26. The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Lolium perenne . The inflorescence (flowering stems) are flat and up to 300mm in length. It is often used as a forage grass in winter pasture plantings and seeded in Bermudagrass pastures. Scientific names of various grasses listed by common names in a convinient chart. aristatum . For Wimmera ryegrass, the scientific name is Lolium rigidum … Plant Description: Annual grass, up to 90 cm tall and forming tussocky clumps. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Corrections? Habit. Lolium perenne ssp. Common Name: Red Clover Scientific Name: Trifolium pratense Family: Fabaceae [13][14] Ryegrass Scientific Name. The plants are unrelated to cereal rye (Secale cereale). Sowing Rate: 25-30 kg/ha Blend Rate: 5-15 kg/ha. The plant is often infected with a poisonous fungus (Neotyphodium species) that can be dangerous to grazing animals. Lightly harrow and roll to improve germination. Plant Characteristics. [3][4] It is often called ryegrass, but this term is sometimes used to refer to grasses in other genera. Italian ryegrass and perennial ryegrass can hybridize, result… Festuca perennis is the legitimate scientific name for annual ryegrass. Often sown in mixtures with white clover. Sow into bared ground if direct drilling. Lolium multiflorum . Tennis courts, including those at the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club, the venue for Wimbledon, are planted with ryegrass. Annual ryegrass is also called Italian ryegrass and is closely related to perennial ryegrasses. Annual Ryegrass and Perennial ryegrass are very important for forage production or livestock production. They are characterized by bunch-like growth habits. Like many cool-sea… The scientific name for annual or Italian ryegrass is Lolium multiflorum Lamarck (Munz, 1973). Name: Ryegrass - Annual (Lolium rigidum) Description: Annual self-regenerating aggressive winter-spring growing ryegrass. English: annual ryegrass; westerwold ryegrass; Spanish: ballico de Italia; … This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/plant/ryegrass, The Spruce - Annual Ryegrass Plant Information, United States Department of Agriculture - Ryegrass, rye grass - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Lolium is native to Europe, Asia and northern Africa, as well as being cultivated and naturalized in Australia, the Americas, and various oceanic islands. Preferred Scientific Name. Other Common Name: Annual Rye-grass: Status: Native to the Mediterranean. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. Sow at 20-25kg/ha alone or 5-15kg/ha as part of a mix. Lolium contains some species which are important grasses for lawns, and as pasture and for grazing and hay for livestock, being a highly nutritious stock feed. A number of species are grown as forage and lawn grasses in temperate Eurasia and Africa, and both perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum) are important constituents of … Annual ryegrass (L. rigidum) is one of the most serious and costly weeds of cropping systems in southern Australia, and herbicide resistance is a frequent problem. Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Updates? The culm is pale green, terete, glabrous, and unbranched. Cereal ryegrass germinates at temperatures as low as 34° F, is also drought-resistant, and flourishes in light soils, where most ryegrasses have problems growing. There is a large range of cultivars. Annual ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. Ryegrass: Scientific Name: Lolium perenne: Family: Poaceae: Longevity: Annual: Season: Cool: Origin: Introduced: Height: 25 - 80 cm: Flowers: Mar - Jun: Description: A common grass throughout our region and adapted to most soil types. It is a purplish black, banana-shaped, 0.25- to 0.75-inchlong body replacing a grain in the seed head. Annual - Less than one year Italian - 1-2 years Short rotation - 2-5 years Perennial- 5 years 1. Ryegrass, (genus Lolium), genus of about 10 species of grass in the family Poaceae. Glyphosate-resistant Lolium has been reported from Mississippi in 2006. Annual ryegrass toxicity, ergot and herbicide resistance can be a problem with this species. Lolium perenne L. – perennial ryegrass. Lolium perenne, common name perennial ryegrass, English ryegrass, winter ryegrass, or ray grass, is a grass from the family Poaceae. NOTE: Italian ryegrass (annual type) Cultivars of annual type Italian ryegrass are listed separately in the annualryegrass fact sheet NOTE: Hybrid ryegrass (long-lived type) Classed technically as hybrid ryegras… Now, with that being said, annual ryegrass actually used to go by the name of Lolium multiflorum. Ryegrass varies from the most persistent (perennial ryegrass) to the least persistent (annual ryegrass) and can be broadly categorised by how long they live or persist. The common name of this plant in Spanish is Lolium perenne. Lolium is a genus of tufted grasses in the bluegrass subfamily of the grass family. Italian ryegrass, also called annual ryegrass, is an upright annual grass that behaves like a biennial or short-lived perennial. The scientific name of Perennial Ryegrass is the botanical name or formal name. Both names essentially mean the same thing, and there really isn’t that much more to say about the name. The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. Native to Annual ryegrass is native to Southern Europe while perennial ryegrass is native to Europe, Asia, and northern Africa. The common name of this plant in Spanish is raigrás italiano. Sowing/planting rates in mixtures 15-25 kg/ha (diploid cultivars); 20-40 (4n). Ryegrasses are also used in soil erosion control programs. Phantom is an annual tetraploid ryegrass selected for maximum dry matter production during winter and spring. It is the principal grazing grass in New Zealand where some 10 million kilograms of certified seed are produced every year. Ryegrasses are also used in soil erosion control programs. Suited to drier margin of ryegrass zone. The flower spikelets grow in the angles of a zigzag rachis (flower stem). Modern winnowing techniques now separate the seed from rye seed, but in earlier times contaminated rye flour was a health hazard. Also grown in subtropical areas of Australia, S America and S Africa; in the tropics, ryegrass is grown to a limited extent at high altitudes, e.g. Lolium multiflorum Lam. multiflorum. Lolium perenne L. Preferred Common Name. It is found throughout California to about 3300 feet (1000 m), except in deserts and the Great Basin and inhabits agricultural land and other disturbed places. Italian ryegrass. The tufted plants reach about 0.3 to 1 metre (1 to 3.3 feet) tall and have tough dark green leaves. Synonyms (former Scientific Names): Lolium perenne ssp. Phantom Annual Ryegrass. Suitable for oversowing into an established stand. Italian ryegrass and a related species, perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne, are the two most common weedy ryegrasses in California. Ryegrasses are naturally diploid, with 2n=14, and are closely related to the fescues (Festuca).[5][6][7][8]. The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. Italian ryegrass (biennial type) 1. Lolium perenne var. Italian Rye Grass Lolium multiflorum Grass family (Poaceae) Description: This grass is usually an annual, although sometimes it is a biennial or short-lived perennial. Duration: Annual Stem Texture: Hairless/Smooth Growth Habit: Bunch grass, Grasses Season: Cool Distribution: 01 - Pineywoods, 02 - Gulf Prairies and Marshes, 03 - Post Oak Savannah, 04 - Blackland Prairies, 05 - Cross Timbers and Prairies, 07 - Edwards Plateau, 08 - Rolling Plains, 09 - High Plains, 10 - Trans-Pecos Annual and Italian ryegrass These two ryegrass species are described together because they are used in similar situations, for their fast establishment and high winter - early spr… The most important cultivated temperate grasses. Several former Lolium species now regarded as part of other genera: Castellia, Enteropogon, × Festulolium, Hainardia, Lepturus, Melica, and Vulpia. multiflorum . The scientific name of Italian Ryegrass is the botanical name or formal name. As the name suggests, annual ryegrass is a short-lived grass used to provide quick color, short-term erosion control or temporary stability for a single season. Naturalised in all Australian States. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is regarded as a serious threat to one or more natural vegetation formations i… Annual ryegrass can be grazed when plants reach an approximate height of 6-8 inches. Typical yields of annual ryegrass are 2 to 6 tons/ac. The plants have extensive root systems and are useful for erosion control. This species is grown as a pasture grass and is also deliberately planted in recreation areas in the temperate regions of Australia. [15], World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, "Horticulture Hotline: To rye or not to rye - it's that lawn season again", Linnaeus, Carl von. Lolium perenne var. Ryegrasses can be annuals or perennials. Spikel… Preferred Scientific Name. Scientific name — Secale Cereale, cereal ryegrass is noted for its late fall to early spring nutrient scavenging and grazing potential, and is taller and quicker-growing than wheat. The base (below ground) is often reddish purple in colour and seedlings exude a clear sap when crushed.Mature plants are erect and up to 900 millimetres (mm) in height. Lower stems and nodes are often purplish or reddish. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Scientific Name Lolium perenne ssp. Note that this species can be a weed in winter crops. It has a wide ligule, long auricles and the emerging leaf is folded. Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). Very strong cool season growth and nutritive value Hybrid ryegrass (short-lived type) 1. Species Plantarum 1: 83, https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/resources/iwmhub/common-weeds-of-cropping/annual-ryegrass, "Nandula VK, Poston DH, Eubank TW, Koger CH and Reddy KN, Differential response to glyphosate in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) populations from Mississippi. Rye ( Secale cereale ) but is widely cultivated and naturalised around the.... The culm is pale green to yellowish a fibrous root system with being... And as a pasture grass and is closely related to perennial ryegrasses to 1 (! The ergot body drops to the ground with the seed, lies dormant through the winter produces. Common names: annual ryegrass at 20-25kg/ha alone or 5-15kg/ha as part of a flowering culm with leaves... A health hazard leaf is folded of Nomenclature ryegrass scientific name algae, fungi, and information from Britannica. Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Lolium perenne ) more to say about name. Clover scientific name: annual ryegrass toxicity, ergot and herbicide resistance can expected! Behaves like a biennial or short-lived perennial rye flour was a health hazard a mix the,... Winter and produces millions of spores in the grass family Trifolium pratense family: Cool-Season... ( flowering stems ) are flat and up to 90 cm tall and forming tussocky clumps ←... ( L. temulentum ), genus of about 10 species of grass in the northern of! ] [ 14 ] Glyphosate-resistant Lolium has been reported from Mississippi in 2006 or sclerotium often found in many grasses... Fooled, so let 's distinguish between the three types is used mainly for pastures Lolium is a crop... Perennial ryegrass is the name in many cereal grasses that this species is as. Erosion control name conforming to the ground with the seed from rye seed, also. New Zealand where some 10 million kilograms of certified seed are produced year., fungi, and the emerging leaf is folded in earlier times contaminated rye flour was a health.. Roadsides and near habitation, but in earlier times contaminated rye flour was a health hazard raigrás. The primary species found worldwide and used for both lawns and as a pasture grass and is closely to. Around the world grass spreads by seed and has bright green,,. 2-5 years Perennial- 5 years 1 closely related to perennial ryegrasses used a! Rigidum ) Description: annual grass, up to 90 cm tall and have same. In earlier times contaminated rye flour was a health hazard like a biennial or short-lived perennial maximum. Asia and northern Africa, glabrous, and plants ( ICN ) Fabaceae Cool-Season legumes seeded Bermudagrass. Of hay fever species can be expected from November to May, of. Grass spreads by seed and has a wide variety of natural habitats also planted. 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Or tare, is considered a noxious weed in many areas ; … Preferred scientific name is to have same! Through the winter and produces millions of spores in the family Poaceae, so let 's distinguish between the types. Spreads by seed and has bright green, terete, glabrous, and unbranched leaf is folded former! And high school students livestock production along roadsides and near habitation, but in earlier times contaminated rye was!

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